Is Cooking Baked into Your Biology?

Pollan cooking

You may have already assumed that I am a Michael Pollan fan, and this lucky fan was treated to a live sighting recently.  He came to the University of Vermont (UVM), where his latest book, Cooked, was required reading for all first year students. He visited several classes, and then offered a Q & A session for a wider audience.

Cooked book

I read Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation when it first came out, and I was consumed. I turned the pages wanting to be in the kitchen, and cooked dinner wanting to get back to my book.  It inspired me to buy wheat berries to grind, then mix, knead, let rise and finally bake into bread, instead of just picking up another prete-a-manger loaf. It encouraged me to continue experimenting with kitchen counter fermentation projects (kombucha, sauerkraut, kimchi, and my latest experiments, home-cured olives and hard cider). The BBQ chapter was not able to pull me out of three decades of meatless eating, but if/when I do give meat a try again, I would like to do it his way: thoughtfully, mindfully and intentionally.

I became absorbed by the idea that cooking is what makes humans human (taking raw nature and turning it into cooked culture being something only humans do). Cooking – partnering with fire, sometimes in combination with water, other times in collaboration with microorganisms – to begin the process of digestion, thereby sparing our bodies the full work load of breaking down food, sets people apart from other beings.  Apparently this adaptation served to shrink the size of our guts, while boosting the growth of our brains. Now that we don’t have to sit around chewing and digesting all day, we have time for other things. Ironically, we don’t seem to be spending this extra time on cooking, since today, we are spending less time cooking than ever before.

My mother was told cooking was drudgery, and that she was a more independent woman if she feed her family with the least amount of time spent in the kitchen.  Interestingly, it was not until my mother discovered the macrobiotic diet, and started cooking with real, whole ingredients that she learned to enjoy cooking, and later gardening. Maybe the package takes the fun and satisfaction away? Maybe we’ve created a dangerous spiral where the convenience eliminates the required cooking time, but takes with it the pleasure, leading to unmotivated cooks, followed by unabled cooks, resulting in a population of packaged food dependents. This progression seems to be happening at the same time as we are becoming sicker and consequently a nation of pharmaceutical dependents.  Is there a connection?

If this wakes you up as quickly as it does me, you find yourself off the couch and in the kitchen before the opening credits of the latest cooking show have finished scrolling. Many of us now spend more time watching people cook on tv, than doing it ourselves. While we watch, we are eating food (snacks, mostly) which other people (or rather, machines) have fixed for us. The result is a general trend toward eating more, while cooking less, and growing not only larger, but also farther removed from the knowledge and intrinsic connection to what feeds, nourishes and sustains us. Meanwhile, researchers are discovering more and more benefits to home cooking, from improved personal health and cost savings, to having a hand in improving our food system as well as influencing the global environment (the climate change implication of our daily food choices are staggering), improved time with friends and family, a creative outlet, greater self-reliance…the list goes on.

According to Pollan’s research, cooking is a defining human characteristic, or in his words, “is baked into your biology.” “Cooking,” he writes, “is one of the most interesting and worthwhile things we humans do.” The result tastes good, and effectively removes the discomfort of hunger too.  So what is the unavoidable lure of food cooked by others (large corporations, faraway factories and fast food restaurants, etc), when home cooking offers so many rewards? Perhaps rebranding cooking as an innate part of the human experience instead of an inconvenient time drain will help turn us around and get us back in the kitchen. If you are interested in exploring a healthier (and perhaps more human?) you via a good self-created meal, you will savor Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation.  Consider it the next short sentence in Pollan’s simple food rules: Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants. Cook.

M Pollan Talking

Along these lines, you may also be interested in a National Food Policy.  Popular food writers, including Michael Pollan, recently collaborated on this article: How A National Food Policy Could Save Millions of American Lives.  If this were on the ballot, it would get my vote, but since it is about food, we actually all already get to vote for (or against) it 3-4 times a day with every food buying decision we make.  A healthy, green, fair and affordable food system would go a long way to support our personal health, public health, local economies and the climate — all at the same time. Bon appetit!

Celeriac, Kohlrabi, Carrot Slaw with Buttermilk Dressing

root slaw

Pull out your food processor, and this is a healthy, crunchy, refreshing fall slaw you can have ready in no time.  Don’t have a food processor, then a good box grater and some youthful help, make this a fun salad to make together.

It features two fall favorites, both of which may prove easier to grow than to find in your typical supermarket.  If your market doesn’t stock them, they are worth requesting. They are: kohlrabi (which comes in a pale green and this brilliant purple color),

purple kohlrabi

and the shy yet robust celeriac (or celery root). Here, looking down on its leaves, and

Celeriac leaveshere, underneath, where the delicious root ball is forming.

Top of celeriac knob

Kohlrabi, whose name means “cabbage turnip” in German can be enjoyed both cooked and raw, for an impressive amount of vitamin C, fiber, folic acid and potassium. Although the ball-like portion is easily mistaken for a root vegetable, it is actually a swollen, above-ground part of the stem. The entire plant is edible, so even though this recipe only calls for the bulb, you can use the leaves as you would kale, collards or cabbage.

Celeriac is often cooked and combined with potatoes in a mash, puree, soup or stew.  It goes well in just about anything in which you use root vegetables, and anywhere you want a celery flavor. It can also be eaten raw, when it is surprisingly crunchy and refreshing and offers an even higher dose of vitamin C. Though it has yet to win any popularity contests in the US, it as been featured on dining room tables in Europe as far back as Homer’s time.

The Fall Slaw:

  • 1/2 celeriac, peeled and grated
  • 1-2 kohlrabi, peeled and grated
  • 4 carrots, scrubbed and grated
  • 1 apple, peeled and grated
  • ½ cup dried cranberries
  • ½ cup nuts or seeds, such as walnuts, pecans, or pumpkin seeds (optional)

Buttermilk Dressing:

  • 9 tablespoons buttermilk (or substitute 4 tablespoons with mayonnaise)
  • 5 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
  • 3 tablespoons apple cider vinegar
  • 1 tablespoon mustard
  • 1 tablespoon honey
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • finely chopped fresh herbs (such as parsley or chives)

Method:

  1. Using a food processor (making it very quick and easy) or a box grater, coarsely grate celeriac, kohlrabi, carrots and apple.
  2. Measure dressing ingredients into a jar with a tightly fitting lid. Close lid and shake to combine.
  3. Combine grated vegetables and dressing in a bowl, add dried cranberries and stir. Cover and allow to stand for flavors to combine.  Add nuts and/or seeds.
  4. Serve garnished with fresh herbs.  This keeps nicely for several days and is an easy lunch to pack and take along.  What it features is all fall, but its bright color and refreshing crunch may remind you of summer.

root slaw 2

Basil-Kale Pesto

summer garden

Mid September – the height of harvest season – and there’s a frost warning, a good two weeks earlier than usual.  We, and the garden, may wake up to 32 degrees tomorrow morning, which means I have a lot to do!  One of the vulnerable crops which will not survive a frigid night is basil.  So, pesto production it is.

fresh basil

One that will actually become tastier with a frost is kale.  With more than plenty of it to take us into early winter, I harvested some now as well to partner with the basil in the pesto.

kale

Basil-Kale Pesto (or substitute other fresh green leaves)

  • 2 cups fresh basil and kale leaves, washed, dried and torn into small pieces
  • 3 medium garlic cloves (or garlic scapes, earlier in the season)
  • ½ cup grated Parmesan cheese
  • ½ cup olive oil
  • ¼ cup nuts (pine nuts, walnuts, sunflower seeds, or a combination)
  • salt and pepper to taste

Combine all ingredients in a food processor and process until you have a beautiful green paste.  You can adjust the flavor with salt and pepper, and the consistency with a bit more olive oil, if needed.

Fill small glass jars with pesto.  They’ll do well in the refrigerator for a week or so, and they’ll keep throughout the winter in the freezer.  Just be sure to give the pesto enough space in the jar to expand when it freezes. If you are a minimal pesto eater, you can freeze it in ice cube trays. Once frozen, transfer the pesto cubes into plastic bags, and return to the freezer for use in soups and sauces when you need a shot of summery green.

Looking for a brighter, longer-lasting green? Then blanch* your basil leaves for a quick moment – no more than 5-6 seconds – before putting them into the food processor.

pesto toast

 

pesto toast close-up

 

* How to blanch? Put a large pot of water on the stove to boil (salted or not, as you wish) and fill a large bowl or a plugged-up sink with ice water. Once at a full boil, drop the basil leaves into the water, count to 5 seconds and remove them with a slotted spoon.  Drop them immediately into the ice water.  Continue on with pesto making instructions using this basil.  You’ll be treated to a brighter and lasting colored pesto.

 

 

The Supplement Pyramid: a new book & giveaway

It’s a question I commonly get: “Do I really have to take supplements? I eat a healthy diet.” The simple answer is “yes.” In addition to eating a healthy diet.  True, my focus is on diet, and how to maintain and manage your health with real food, however, I agree with the reasoning outlined in this book, that depleted soil health, increased toxicity of our environment, daily stress, food additives and unavoidable processed food have worked together to create a situation in which it is nearly impossible to obtain all the nutrients your body would like on a daily basis. That’s where supplements come in.

The more complex answer involves the personalization of what and how much you should take.  The process of personalization can seem overwhelming, and indeed you are certain to come across misleading and conflicting information along the way. To try to simplify the process, I often recommend the Life Extension Foundation (LEF) for well-researched information as well as high quality products.  It is certainly not the only source of independent research and reliable information, but it is one (of several) I use both personally and professionally.

SupplementPyramid_book-500px

The Supplement Pyramid, written by Dr. Michael A. Smith, Senior Health Scientist with Life Extension Foundation, and Sara Lovelady, provides a very accessible, easy-to-read explanation of why supplements are necessary, and how to determine which ones are right for you.  The book includes numerous health quizzes so it doubles as a workbook to help with the personalization process.  The quizzes allow you to evaluate and reevaluate the best combination of supplements through out your life, since your ideal supplement package is likely to vary as you age and health conditions change.  It offers short discussions of many common health conditions (from diabetes to irritable bowel syndrome to cancer) with suggestions for supplements and blood tests to determine your personal needs. Later, the authors guide the reader through four case studies. The book concludes with two useful appendices: a list of eleven recommended nutritional supplement companies (including, but not limited to LEF), and a long list of recommend nutrients with online links for even more information.

Here’s a video sneak peek:

The pyramid structure takes into account three levels of importance when it comes to taking supplements: foundational, personal and optimal.  If you can’t take the full pyramid of supplements (for financial or other reasons), this format clearly illustrates which to forego first.

LEF supplement pyramid

The Supplement Pyramid effectively explains which supplements fall into the Foundational level (for everyone). The next chapter guides the reader through quizzes (personal history and medical evaluations) to determine which supplements best fit into your Personalization level. The final level is about health optimization.  It includes recommendations for supplements which could help you live longer and healthier, such as additional antioxidants, amino acids, or a newly discovered longevity herb.Build Your Pyramid
If you prefer information online, the book’s authors provide an accompanying website, My Supplement Pyramid, with nutrient information and health quizzes where you can take, store and retake (when necessary) your personal information digitally.

In this book, the pyramid shape provides a beneficial structure with which to organize and prioritize your personal supplement regimen. Following the recommendations found on its pages, may result in improved health and/or extended longevity in a solid, long-lasting way not unlike the ancient pyramids (although it is generally believed that pyramids served as monuments to the deceased).

Until recently, the pyramid format was also used by the USDA to help us assemble our meals in balanced combinations from the various food groups.  That graphic was updated to a plate (with the clear visual cue in place), in the hopes of encouraging greater numbers of people to make healthy eating choices. Even if you typically fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables (which, according to Smith, is only true for 1 in 10 Americans), it is still unlikely that all of your nutrient needs will be fully met. That is where this very readable guide brings the pyramid back to the table, and aids you in making the best choices for your dietary supplements.

Dr. Michael Smith has kindly given me a second book to offer as a giveaway.  This easily digestible, handy reference will be sent to one lucky reader (randomly chosen) who leaves a comment. We are eager to hear about your favorite supplement – the herbal or nutritional supplement you wouldn’t want to go without. I have two at the moment: kelp and chia seeds. Please share yours in the comments below, and good luck!

 

Life Extension Foundation sent me two free copies of this book through the Life Extension Blogger Program, with the understanding that I would read and review one and offer the second copy as a giveaway to my readers. The opinions in this piece are all mine.  Other than being a part of their Blogger Program, I am not affiliated with Life Extension Foundation, nor am I being compensated. 

Kids Cook Monday: Homemade Dressing

pouring dressing

A good dressing can be the difference between timid vegetable nibbling and eager vegetable consumption.  Unfortunately, the vast majority of bottled dressings are best left on supermarket shelves due to the added sugars, preservatives and genetically modified vegetable, soybean or canola oils they contain.  The good news is it is very easy to make your own with fresh, high quality, healthy ingredients. With plenty of room for flavor experimentation and personalizing, this is a great recipe for the kids around your dinner table.

An unofficial (and not particularly scientific) study I recently conducted, confirmed that ranch is America’s favorite dressing. It was comforting to then come across this article on the NPR food blog, The Salt, supporting my findings. With that settled, here’s our version of the American favorite, buttermilk ranch dressing, made from real ingredients, at home, in just a few easy steps:

  • 2 tablespoons mayonnaise (if you are a child like Julia Child, you can make your own using this recipe).
  • 6 tablespoons buttermilk (staying in the do-it-yourself mood, you can make this yourself too, using this recipe).
  • 1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar
  • 1/8 teaspoon salt (possibly more to taste)
  • 1/2 teaspoon onion powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder or a fresh clove, minced
  • 1/4 teaspoon celery seed
  • some fresh herbs, such as parsley, cilantro, chives, tarragon, etc. finely chopped.
  • several grinds of black pepper

Parsley close-upMethod:

Add all ingredients to a mason jar (or other container with a well-fitting lid), tighten lid and shake. You can add more mayonnaise to create a dip, or more buttermilk to adjust the consistency in the other direction. Serve with any vegetable or salad and enjoy!

parsley with dressing

 

 

Kids Cook Monday: Very Veggie Lasagna

kcm lasagna

A vegetarian lasagna is often not much more than many layers of pasta and cheese. Tasty as that can be, it strikes me as a lot of work for essentially a variation on stove-top mac and cheese, and a missed opportunity to add color, texture and nutritional excitement in the form of vegetables. Therefore, for our most recent Kids Cook Monday cooking class* (in which my daughter and I cook a full meal with a class of adult-child cooking pairs), we made this lasagna which uses two sauces, one with greens and one with red and orange vegetables.

Preparation takes about 45 minutes, followed by a little over an hour of baking, making it a great family dinner project. Many hands make the chopping, stirring and assembly fun and easy, and the hour of oven time can be filled with salad and dessert making (those recipe posts coming up shortly).

Very Veggie Lasagna

Ingredients:

  • 1 large onion, chopped and divided
  • 1 leek, washed and chopped
  • 4 cloves garlic, minced and divided
  • 1 tablespoon butter, divided
  • 1 sweet potato, grated
  • 1 jar basic tomato sauce (24 oz)
  • several hardy pinches of Italian spices
  • 16 oz frozen greens (or 1 lb fresh greens, such as spinach, kale, Swiss chard, etc)
  • 15 oz ricotta cheese
  • 2 eggs
  • ¼ teaspoon salt
  • several grinds black pepper and nutmeg
  • 9 pieces oven-ready lasagna noodles
  • 3 cups grated mozzarella cheese

Method:

  1. Preheat oven to 375˚.
  2. Place ½ tablespoon of butter in each of two skillets or sauce pans.
  3. Divide onions evenly between two pans, and sauté until soft and translucent.
  4. Add chopped leeks to one skillet (this will be the greens-ricotta pan).
  5. Divide minced garlic between two pans.kcm adding garlic
  6. Add sweet potato and ¼ cup of water to other pan (this will be the red sauce pan) and cook until soft.
  7. Drain the greens and squeeze out any excess liquid over the sink. Add greens to greens-ricotta pan. Cook for 2-3 minutes, and turn heat off.
  8. Empty jar of tomato sauce into sweet potato mixture for the red sauce.  Add ¼ cup of water to jar, close lid, shake to combine with remaining sauce, and empty jar into pan again. Add Italian spices, and salt and pepper to taste.kcm red sauce
  9. Beat 2 eggs in medium-sized bowl, mix in ricotta cheese.  Pour into greens-ricotta pan.  Add salt, and several grinds of black pepper and nutmeg.kcm ricotta
  10.  Assembly:  In a 9×13 (or similar-sized) baking pan, layer:
  • ¾ cup red sauce
  • single layer of lasagna pasta (3 pieces)
  • ½ of greens-ricotta mixture
  • ¾ cup red sauce
  • 1 cup shredded mozzarella cheese
  • single layer of lasagna pasta (3 pieces)
  • remaining greens-ricotta mixture
  • ¾ cup red sauce
  • 1 cup shredded mozzarella cheese
  • single layer of lasagna pasta (3 pieces)
  • remaining red sauce
  • remaining shredded mozzarella cheesekcm assembly

11. Cover with aluminum foil and place in preheated oven. After 1 hour, remove foil to allow cheese on top to brown.  Bake for another 10-15 minutes. Remove from oven and allow to cool.

kcm lasagna 1

 

* For more on the Kids Cook Monday movement, be sure to visit the campaign’s website, pledge to enjoy dinner together as a family at least once a week, and enjoy the recipes posted on this site as part of the “Kids Cook Monday” series.

Long Live Grilled Cheese!

A panini, a quesadilla, a tosti, a croque-monsieur, a Welsh rarebit…. it has been thoroughly tested the world over, and has been unequivocally determined: a grilled cheese is a good thing.  In conjunction with Wilson Farm’s Grilled Cheese Weekend (my childhood neighborhood farm and farm stand hosting their First-Ever Grilled Cheese Weekend, March 1 & 2, 2014), I’m having what has become my favorite way to enjoy a grilled cheese sandwich.

kimchi grilled cheese

Thanks to a thematic overhaul and a particularly lively addition, the grilled cheese recently jumped up in the ranks of my favorite sandwiches. The new theme is probiotics – those BFF bacteria we can’t live without and live much better with. Filling my sandwich with as much life as possible, I’ve been opting for a true sour dough bread (which is naturally fermented), layered with sliced raw milk hard cheese (naturally cultured Cheddar being the favorite choice in my area), topped with a generous scoop of sauerkraut or kimchi (lacto-fermented cabbage teaming with probiotics), all melted together to the point of perfection.

kimchi

kimchi grilled cheese

Add even more life to your meal, by washing it down with a tall glass of kombucha (a naturally fermented tea), ginger bug, kefir or a lassi and you are in good bacterial hands!

Valentine’s Fruit & Veg Pizzas

Happy Valentine’s Day!

V-day special tray

Anyone else showing love and making Valentine’s Day treats with fruits and vegetables? I know it’s a holiday celebrated with candy and chocolate (according to CNN, people dropped $1.6 billion for candy on this day last year!), but aren’t they all?  And if you really love someone, don’t you want to give them something that is good for them?

With a heart-shaped cookie-cutter (or a good knife and a steady hand), almost anything can take on a heart shape, and with some strategic cutting several fruits and vegetables have built-in hearts ready to shine!

We selected red bell peppers with a particularly hearty shape, sliced them and made personalized heart pizzas.

Single heart pizza

Tray of heart pizzas

We also made strawberry heart toasts, by cutting toast into heart shapes, spreading them with cream cheese or another soft cheese, and placing heart-shaped slices of strawberry on top. Sprinkle with shaved chocolate, coconut flakes, freshly ground nutmeg or cinnamon, and it’s a Happy Valentine’s Day!

Strawberry heart toast

Tray of heart toast

Other posts related to Valentine’s Day you might like:

Kids Cook Monday: Fried Bananas Supreme

fried bananas

Just about all children like bananas, most likely as a breakfast or snack food, eaten raw. Let’s give them their familiar banana but fry it up, which both softens the fruit and heightens the flavor, then offer a selection of toppings from chocolate to nutmeg to nuts and seeds for personalization fun. This makes an easy and special dessert, and the third recipe in our “Kids Cook Monday” series.

bananas

Fried Bananas with Chocolate and Coconut

  • ½ -1 banana per person
  • butter or coconut oil for frying
  • chunk of chocolate (dark, milk or white)
  • grated coconut

bananas

Method:

  1. With peel on, cut bananas into quarters, then peel (makes process a little neater).
  2. Heat skillet and melt butter or coconut oil.
  3. Place banana pieces side by side in pan and fry until starting to brown. Turn and fry other side.
  4. Serve with shaved chocolate and/or grated coconut sprinkled on top.

Shaving chocolate

Additional serving ideas:

  • top with cinnamon, nutmeg and/or cardamom
  • serve with ice cream or vanilla yogurt
  • drizzle with maple syrup and/or honey
  • top with nuts
  • top with berries
  • slide inside a peanut butter sandwich
  • sprinkle with black sesame seeds for a beautiful visual contrast
  • for a savory, more Latin American version, use plantains instead of bananas and serve with salt or refried beans and sour cream.

A few fun banana facts:

  1. A banana is technically a berry (and so are watermelons, coffee, pumpkins and avocados) which grows on the world’s largest herb, not a tree.
  2. There are more than a 1,000 types of bananas worldwide.  In the US, you’re probably familiar with just one: the Cavendish.
  3. In addition to edible fruit, a banana plant also offers an edible flower.  We’ve never tried a banana flower – they are hard to find in Vermont – but would love to hear what they taste like, if you have.
banana with flower

Photo thanks to pics4learning

Kids Cook Monday: Rice Noodles with Tofu & Veg

Pad Thai top view

The second recipe in the series from our “Kids Cook Monday” cooking classes, in which we invite child-parent cooking teams to join us (ten-year old daughter and her mother) to create a healthy, whole foods dinner full of color, flavor and fun is an Asian-style noodles and vegetable dish.

As my cooking partner, my daughter is as involved in the menu planning as in the preparation. Her pick for the main dish was a home-cooked version of a restaurant favorite, Pad Thai.  We added more vegetables and tofu than your typical take-out, and skipped the shrimp (for Meatless Monday and sustainability reasons).

Pad Thai vegetables

Pad Thai-Inspired Rice Noodle Stir-Fry with Tofu and Vegetables

      • 2 tablespoons grape seed oilcoconut oil or peanut oil
      • 1 package of tofu (use pressed tofu, if you can find it, or press yourself for best results)
      • 1 teaspoon tamarind paste
      • 1 ½ tablespoons brown sugar
      • 3 tablespoons warm water
      • juice of 1 lime
      • ¼ cup tamari soy sauce
      • ½ teaspoon red pepper flakes
      • several grinds of black pepper
      • 1 onion, finely chopped
      • 2 carrots, cut into small pieces
      • 1/2 head of broccoli, cut into small pieces
      • 1 bell pepper, cut into pieces
      • 4 cloves of garlic, minced
      • 4 eggs
      • 8 oz rice stick noodles (can substitute with spaghetti if hard to find)

Nice additions and garnishes include (all optional):

      • 1 bunch scallions, cut into small rounds
      • 8 oz bean sprouts, rinsed
      • 1/3 cup peanuts, roughly chopped, if you like
      • 1/3 cup cilantro, roughly cut and some leaves reserved for garnish
      • 1 lime, cut into wedges
      • sriracha sauce

Frying Tofu:

      1. Dry and/or press tofu – either place tofu between two plates in the sink, with something heavy on top (such as a large can) and let sit for several hours, or cut into slices, lay them on a kitchen towel, place another towel on top and gentle press to pull the moisture out of the tofu. If you like gadgets, here’s a tofu press made just for this job. Cut into cubes. 
      2. Heat a large skillet over medium heat. Add oil and let warm.
      3. Once first piece of tofu sizzles in the pan, place all cubes in a single layer making sure not to overcrowd them.
      4. Shake pan gently to make sure tofu isn’t sticking, and allow to cook for 5-8 minutes or until a golden crust starts to creep up the sides.  Turn tofu and give the other side a few minutes to brown.
      5. Remove from heat, and place tofu on paper towels to drain.

Making the Sauce:

      1. In a small bowl, dissolve tamarind paste and sugar in warm water (take the time to fully dissolve them).
      2. Add lime juice, soy sauce, chili flakes and pepper and mix.

Softening the Noodles:

Bring a large pot of water to a boil, and cook noodles for 5-6 minutes, removing from heat and draining just before being fully cooked.

Preparing Vegetables & Assembly:

    1. Chop vegetables into small pieces and mince or press garlic. There is plenty of room for flexibility in this recipe.  For flavor and appearance, it is nice to use three vegetables of different colors, but they don’t need to be carrots, a red pepper and broccoli.
    2. Heat oil in large skillet or wok on medium heat, and sauté onions, carrots and broccoli, add garlic and peppers a few minutes later and sauté another minute or two.
    3. Beat eggs in a small bowl, pour into vegetables, cook for a moment, then stir.
    4. Add tofu, cook for another 1-2 minutes.
    5. Add noodles and pour in the sauce.  Gently combine all.
    6. Add half the scallions, bean sprouts and peanuts (if using).
    7. Place remaining scallions, bean sprouts, peanuts in bowls along with cilantro and lime wedges as garnishes for personalizing plates.

Pad Thai noodles